Various Tests Provided by ATVIVO Laboratory

Common Laboratory Tests

The medical information provided is for informational purposes only and is not to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Please contact your health care provider with questions you may have regarding medical conditions or the interpretation of test results.


All information provided and reference links are based on
NIH National Library of Medicine [Internet] MedlinePlus® https://medlineplus.gov/

  • Basic Metabolic Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Cholesterol Levels
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • Blood Differential Test
  • Urinalysis
  • Thyroid Function Tests
  • Hemoglobin A1C Test Basic Metabolic Panel

The basic metabolic panel is a group of blood tests that provides information about your body's metabolism. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand.

How to Prepare for the Test

You should not eat or drink for 8 hours before the test.

Why the Test is Performed

This test is done to evaluate: Kidney function Blood acid/base balance Blood sugar levels In some cases, the test also is used to check blood levels of calcium and a protein called albumin.

Normal Results The following are normal ranges for the blood chemicals tested:

  • BUN: 7 to 20 mg/dL
  • CO2 (carbon dioxide): 20 to 29 mmol/L
  • Creatinine: 0.8 to 1.2 mg/dL
  • Glucose: 64 to 100 mg/dL
  • Serum chloride: 101 to 111 mmol/L
  • Serum potassium: 3.7 to 5.2 mmol/L
  • Serum sodium: 136 to 144 mmol/L

Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your health care provider about the meaning of your specific test results. The examples above show the common measurements for results for these tests. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different specimens. What Abnormal Results Mean Abnormal results can be due to a variety of different medical conditions, including kidney failure, breathing problems, diabetes or diabetes-related complications, and medicine side effects. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your results from each test. The basic metabolic panel typically measures these substances in a sample of blood:

 

  1. BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
  2. Creatinine
  3. CO2 (carbon dioxide)
  4. Glucose
  5. Serum chloride
  6. Serum potassium
  7. Serum sodium

References Bope ET, Kellerman RD. Endocrine and metabolic disorders. In: Bope ET, Kellerman RD, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2017. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 5. Oh MS, Briefel G. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes, and acid-base balance. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:chap 14. Review Date 5/21/2017 Updated by: Laura J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. The medical information provided is for informational purposes only and is not to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Please contact your health care provider with questions you may have regarding medical conditions or the interpretation of test results. Comprehensive Metabolic Panel A comprehensive metabolic panel is a group of blood tests. They provide an overall picture of your body's chemical balance and metabolism. Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that use energy.

fm=f_4203

Why the Test is Performed This test gives your health care provider information about:

  • How your kidneys and liver are working
  • Blood sugar and calcium levels
  • Sodium, potassium, and chloride levels (called electrolytes)
  • Protein levels

Your provider may order this test to check you for side effects of medicines or diabetes, or for liver or kidney disease. Normal Results Normal values for the panel tests are:

  • Albumin: 3.4 to 5.4 g/dL
  • Alkaline phosphatase: 20 to 130 U/L
  • ALT (alanine aminotransferase): 4 to 36 U/L
  • AST (aspartate aminotransferase): 8 to 33 U/L
  • BUN (blood urea nitrogen): 6 to 20 mg/dL
  • Calcium: 2.13 to 2.55 mmol/L
  • Chloride: 96 to 106 mmol/L
  • CO2 (carbon dioxide): 23 to 29 mmol/L
  • Creatinine: 0.6 to 1.3 mg/dL
  • Glucose: 3.9 to 5.6 mmol/L
  • Potassium: 3.70 to 5.20 mmol/L
  • Sodium: 135 to 145 mmol/L
  • Total bilirubin: 0.1 to 1.2 mg/dL
  • Total protein: 6.0 to 8.3 g/dL

Normal values for creatinine can vary with age. Normal value ranges for all tests may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or may test different specimens. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results Mean Abnormal results can be due to a variety of different medical conditions. These may include kidney failure, liver disease, breathing problems, and diabetes or diabetes complications. References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) - blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds.

ATVIVO Laboratory

Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:372. McPherson RA, Pincus MR. Disease/organ panels. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:appendix 7. Review Date 1/26/2019 Updated by: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team The medical information provided is for informational purposes only and is not to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Please contact your health care provider with questions you may have regarding medical conditions or the interpretation of test results. Cholesterol Levels What is a cholesterol test? Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in your blood and every cell of your body. You need some cholesterol to keep your cells and organs healthy. Your liver makes all the cholesterol your body needs. But you can also get cholesterol from the foods you eat, especially meat, eggs, poultry, and dairy products. Foods that are high in dietary fat can also make your liver produce more cholesterol. There are two main types of cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good" cholesterol. A cholesterol test is a blood test that measures the amount of each type of cholesterol and certain fats in your blood. Too much LDL cholesterol in your blood may put you at risk for heart disease and other serious conditions. High LDL levels can cause the build-up of plaque, a fatty substance that narrows the arteries and blocks blood from flowing normally. When blood flow to the heart is blocked, it can cause a heart attack. When blood flow to the brain is blocked, it can lead to stroke and peripheral artery disease. Other names for a cholesterol test: Lipid profile, Lipid panel What is it used for? If you have high cholesterol, you may not experience any symptoms at all, but you could be at significant risk for heart disease. A cholesterol test can give your health care provider important information about the cholesterol levels in your blood.

The test measures:

  • LDL levels. Also known as the "bad" cholesterol, LDL is the main source of blockages in the arteries.
  • HDL levels. Considered the "good" cholesterol, HDL helps get rid of "bad" LDL cholesterol.
  • Total cholesterol. The combined amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in your blood.
  • Triglycerides A type of fat found in your blood. According to some studies, high levels of triglycerides may increase the risk of heart disease, especially in women.
  • VLDL levels. Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is another type of "bad" cholesterol. Development of plaque on the arteries has been linked to high VLDL levels. It's not easy to measure VLDL, so most of the time these levels are estimated based on triglyceride measurements.

Why do I need a cholesterol test?

Your doctor may order a cholesterol test as part of a routine exam, or if you have a family history of heart disease or one or more of the following risk factors:

  1. High blood pressure
  2. Type 2 diabetes
  3. Smoking
  4. Excess weight or obesity
  5. Lack of physical activity
  6. A diet high in saturated fat
fm=f_22853

Your age may also be a factor

because your risk for heart disease increases as you get older. What happens during a cholesterol test? A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This usually takes less than five minutes. Cholesterol tests are usually done in the morning, as you may be asked to refrain from eating for several hours prior to the test.

Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test? You may need to fast--no food or drink--for 9 to 12 hours before your blood is drawn. Your health care provider will let you know if you need to fast and if there are any special instructions to follow. What do the results mean? Cholesterol is usually measured in milligrams (mg) of cholesterol per deciliter (dL) of blood. The information below shows how the different types of cholesterol measurements are categorized. Total Cholesterol Level Category Less than 200mg/dL Desirable 200-239 mg/dL Borderline high 240mg/dL and above High LDL (Bad) Cholesterol Level LDL Cholesterol Category Less than 100mg/dL Optimal 100-129mg/dL Near optimal/above optimal 130-159 mg/dL Borderline high 160-189 mg/dL High 190 mg/dL and above Very High HDL (Good) Cholesterol Level HDL Cholesterol Category 60 mg/dL and higher Considered protective against heart disease 40-59 mg/dL The higher, the better Less than 40 mg/dL A major risk factor for heart disease A healthy cholesterol range for you may depend on your age, family history, lifestyle, and other risk factors. In general, low LDL levels and high HDL cholesterol levels are good for heart health. High levels of triglycerides may also put you at risk for heart disease. The LDL on your results may say "calculated" which means it includes a calculation of total cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides. Your LDL level may also be measured "directly," without using other measurements. Regardless, you want your LDL number to be low. Is there anything else I need to know about my cholesterol levels? High cholesterol can lead to heart disease, the number one cause of death in the United States.

While some risk factors for cholesterol, such as age and heredity, are beyond your control, there are actions you can take to lower your LDL levels and reduce your risk, including:

  1. Eating a healthy diet. Reducing or avoiding foods high in saturated fat and cholesterol can help reduce the cholesterol levels in your blood.
  1. Losing weight. Being overweight can increase your cholesterol and risk for heart disease.
  1. Staying active. Regular exercise may help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol levels and raise your HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It may also help you lose weight.

Talk to your health care provider before making any major change in your diet or exercise routine.

References

  1. American Heart Association [Internet]. Dallas (TX): American Heart Association Inc.; c2017. About Cholesterol; [updated 2016 Aug 10; cited 2017 Feb 6]; [about 3screens]. Available from: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/AboutCholesterol/About-Cholesterol_UCM_001220_Article.jsp
  2. American Heart Association [Internet]. Dallas (TX): American Heart Association Inc.; c2017. Good vs. Bad Cholesterol; [updated 2017 Jan 10; cited 2017 Jan 26]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/AboutCholesterol/Good-vs-Bad-Cholesterol_UCM_305561_Article.jsp
  3. American Heart Association [Internet]. Dallas (TX): American Heart Association Inc.; c2017. How To Get Your Cholesterol Tested; [updated 2016 Mar 28; cited 2017 Jan 26]; [about 3screens]. Available from: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/SymptomsDiagnosisMonitoringofHighCholesterol/How-To-Get-Your-Cholesterol-Tested_UCM_305595_Article.jsp
  4. American Heart Association [Internet]. Dallas (TX): American Heart Association Inc.; c2017. Prevention and Treatment of High Cholesterol; [updated 2016 Aug 30; cited 2017 Jan 26]; [about 7 screens]. Available from:http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/PreventionTreatmentofHighCholesterol/Prevention-and-Treatment-of-High-Cholesterol_UCM_001215_Article.jsp
  5. American Heart Association [Internet]. Dallas (TX): American Heart Association Inc.; c2017. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean; [updated 2016 Aug 17; cited 2017 Jan 26]; [about 3 screens]. Available from:http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/AboutCholesterol/What-Your-Cholesterol-Levels-Mean_UCM_305562_Article.jsp
  6. Healthfinder.gov. [Internet]. Washington D.C.: Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; National Health Information Center; Get Your Cholesterol Checked; [updated 2017 Jan 4; cited 2017 Jan 26]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: https://healthfinder.gov/healthtopics/dispatch.aspx?q1=doctor-visits&q2;=screening-tests&q3;=get-your-cholesterol-checked
  7. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998-2017.Cholesterol Test: Overview; 2016 Jan 12 [cited 2017 Jan 26]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/cholesterol-test/home/ovc-20169526
  8. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998-2017.Cholesterol Test: What you can expect; 2016 Jan 12 [cited 2017 Jan 26]; [about 6 screens]. Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/cholesterol-test/details/what-you-can-expect/rec-20169541
  9. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998-2017. Cholesterol Test: Why it's done; 2016 Jan 12 [cited 2017 Jan 26]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/cholesterol-test/details/why-its-done/icc-20169529
  10. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998-2017.High Cholesterol: Overview 2016 Feb 9 [cited 2017 Jan 26]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-cholesterol/home/ovc-20181871
  11. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998-2017.VLDL cholesterol: Is it harmful? [cited 2017 Jan 26]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-cholesterol/expert-answers/vldl-cholesterol/faq-20058275
  12. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need to Know; 2001 May [updated 2005 Jun; cited 2017 Jan 26]; [about 5 screens]. Available from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/resources/heart/heart-cholesterol-hbc-what-html
  13. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; How is High Blood Cholesterol Diagnosed? 2001 May [updated 2016 Apr 8; cited 2017 Jan 26]; [about 5 screens]. Available from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hbc/diagnosis
  14. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; What Are the Risks of Blood Tests? [updated 2012 Jan 6; cited 2017 Jan 26]; [about 5 screens. Available from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/bdt/risks
  15. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; What is Cholesterol? [cited 2017 Jan 26]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hbc
  16. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; What To Expect with Blood Tests; [updated 2012 Jan 6; cited 2017 Jan 25]; [about 5 screens].Available from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/bdt/with
  17. Quest Diagnostics [Internet].Quest Diagnostics; c2000-2017. Test Center: LDL Cholesterol; [updated 2012 Dec; cited 2017 Jan 26]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.questdiagnostics.com/testcenter/TestDetail.action?ntc=8293

Complete Blood Count (CBC)

What is a complete blood count?
A complete blood count or CBC is a blood test that measures many different parts and features of your blood, including:

  1. Red blood cells, which carry oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body
  2. White blood cells, which fight infection. There are five major types of white blood cells. A CBC test measures the total number of white cells in your blood. A test called a CBC with differential also measures the number of each type of these white blood cells
  3. Platelets, which help your blood to clot and stop bleeding
  4. Hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from your lungs and to the rest of your body
  5. Hematocrit, a measurement of how much of your blood is made up of red blood
fm=f_D184Pba

A complete blood count may also include measurements of chemicals and other substances in your blood. These results can give your health care provider important information about your overall health and risk for certain diseases. Other names for a complete blood count: CBC, full blood count, blood cell count Why do I need a complete blood count? Your health care provider may have ordered a complete blood count as part of your checkup or to monitor your overall health. In addition, the test may be used to:

  1. Diagnose a blood disease, infection, immune system and disorder, or other medical conditions
  2. Keep track of an existing blood disorder

What do the results mean? A CBC counts the cells and measures the levels of different substances in your blood. There are many reasons your levels may fall outside the normal range. For instance:

  1. Abnormal red blood cell, hemoglobin, or hematocrit levels may indicate anemia, iron deficiency, or heart disease
  2. Low white cell count may indicate an autoimmune disorder, bone marrow disorder, or cancer
  3. High white cell count may indicate an infection or reaction to medication

If any of your levels are abnormal, it does not necessarily indicate a medical problem needing treatment. Diet, activity level, medications, a women's menstrual cycle, and other considerations can affect the results. Talk to your health care provider to learn what your results mean. Is there anything else I need to know about a complete blood count? A complete blood count is only one tool your health care provider uses to learn about your health. Your medical history, symptoms, and other factors will be considered before a diagnosis. Additional testing and follow-up care may also be recommended.

References

    1. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998-2017. Complete Blood Count (CBC): Overview; 2016 Oct 18 [cited 2017 Jan 30]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/complete-blood-count/home/ovc-20257165
    2. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998-2017. Complete Blood Count (CBC): Results; 2016 Oct 18 [cited 2017 Jan 30]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/complete-blood-count/details/results/rsc-20257186
    3. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998-2017. Complete Blood Count (CBC): Why it's done; 2016 Oct 18 [cited 2017 Jan 30]; [about 5 screens]. Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/complete-blood-count/details/why-its-done/icc-20257174
    4. National Cancer Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms: complete blood count [cited 2017 Jan 30]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms?CdrID=45107
    5. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Types of Blood Tests; [updated 2012 Jan 6; cited 2017 Jan 30]; [about 5 screens]. Available from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/blood-tests#Types
    6. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; What Are the Risks of Blood Tests? [updated 2012 Jan 6; cited 2017 Jan 30]; [about 5 screens]. Available from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/blood-tests#Risk-Factors
    7. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; What Do Blood Tests Show? [updated 2012 Jan 6; cited 2017 Jan 30]; [about 5 screens]. Available from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/blood-tests
    8. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; What To Expect with Blood Tests; [updated 2012 Jan 6; cited 2017 Jan 30]; [about 5 screens]. Available from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/blood-tests
    9. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Your Guide to Anemia; [cited 2017 Jan 30]; [about 9 screens]. Available from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/public/blood/anemia-yg.pdf

The medical information provided is for informational purposes only and is not to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Please contact your health care provider with questions you may have regarding medical conditions or the interpretation of test results. Blood Differential Test The blood differential test measures the percentage of each type of white blood cell (WBC) that you have in your blood. It also reveals if there are any abnormal or immature cells. Five types of white blood cells, also called leukocytes, normally appear in the blood:

  1. Neutrophils
  2. Lymphocytes
  3. Monocytes
  4. Eosinophils
  5. Basophils

A special machine or a health care provider counts the number of each type of cell. The test shows if the number of cells are in proper proportion with one another, and if there is more or less of one cell type. Why the Test is Performed This test is done to diagnose an infection, anemia, or leukemia. It may also be used to monitor one of these conditions, or to see if treatment is working. Normal Results The different types of white blood cells are given as a percentage:

  1. Neutrophils: 40% to 60%
  2. Lymphocytes: 20% to 40%
  3. Monocytes: 2% to 8%
  4. Eosinophils: 1% to 4%
  5. Basophils: 0.5% to 1%

hat Abnormal Results Mean Any infection or acute stress increases your number of white blood cells. High white blood cell counts may be due to inflammation, an immune response, or blood diseases such as leukemia. It is important to realize that an abnormal increase in one type of white blood cell can cause a decrease in the percentage of other types of white blood cells. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be due to:

  • Acute infection
  • Acute stress
  •  Eclampsia (seizures or coma in a pregnant woman)
  •  Gout (type of arthritis due to uric acid buildup in the blood)
  •  Acute or chronic forms of leukemia
  •  Myeloproliferative diseases
  •  Rheumatoid arthritis
  •  Rheumatic fever (disease due to an infection with group A streptococcus bacteria)
  •  Thyroiditis (a thyroid disease)
  •  Trauma
  •  Cigarette smoking
  • A decreased percentage of neutrophils may be due to:
  •  Aplastic anemia
  •  Chemotherapy
  •  Influenza (flu)
  •  Radiation therapy or exposure
  •  Viral infection
  •  Widespread severe bacterial infection
  • An increased percentage of lymphocytes may be due to:
  •  Chronic bacterial infection
  • Infectious hepatitis (liver swelling and inflammation from bacteria or viruses)
  • Infectious mononucleosis, or mono (viral infection that causes fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands)
  •  Lymphocytic leukemia (a type of blood cancer)
  •  Multiple myeloma (a type of blood cancer)
  •  Viral infection (such as mumps or measles)
  • A decreased percentage of lymphocytes may be due to:
  •  Chemotherapy
  •  HIV/AIDS infection
  •  Leukemia
  •  Radiation therapy or exposure
  •  Sepsis (severe, inflammatory response to bacteria or other germs)
  •  Steroid use
  • An increased percentage of monocytes may be due to:
  •  Chronic inflammatory disease
  •  Leukemia
  •  Parasitic infection
  •  Tuberculosis, or TB (bacterial infection that involves the lungs)
  •  Viral infection (for example, infectious mononucleosis, mumps, measles)
  • An increased percentage of eosinophils may be due to:
  • Addison disease (adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones)
  • Allergic reaction
  • Cancer
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia
  • Collagen vascular disease
  • Hypereosinophilic syndromes
  • Parasitic infection
  • An increased percentage of basophils may be due to:
  • After splenectomy
  • Allergic reaction
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (a type of bone marrow cancer)
  • Collagen vascular disease
  • Myeloproliferative diseases (group of bone marrow diseases)
  • Chickenpox
  • A decreased percentage of basophils may be due to:
  • Acute infection
  • Cancer
  • Severe injury

References

Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Differential leukocyte count (diff) - peripheral blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:440-446. Hutchison RE, Schexneider KI. Leukocytic disorders. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:chap 33. Review Date 1/29/2019 Updated by: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

Symptoms of Grave's disease include:

  1. Weight loss
  2. Bulging of the eyes
  3. Tremors in the hand
  4. Low tolerance for heat
  5. Trouble sleeping
  6. Anxiety
  7. Increased heart rate
  8. Swollen thyroid, known as goiter

You may also need this test if other thyroid tests show that your thyroid hormone levels are too low or too high. These tests include measurements of hormones known as T3, T4, and TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone).

What do the results mean?

Your results may show one of the following:

  • Negative: no thyroid antibodies were found. This means your thyroid symptoms are probably not caused by an autoimmune disease.
  • Positive: antibodies to TPO and/or Tg were found. This may mean you have Hashimoto disease. Most people with Hashimoto disease have high levels of one or both of these types of antibodies.
  • Positive: antibodies to TPO and/or TSH receptor were found. This may mean you have Grave's disease.

The more thyroid antibodies you have, the more likely it is that you have an autoimmune disorder of the thyroid. If you are diagnosed with Hashimoto disease or Grave's disease, there are medicines you can take to manage your condition.

Is there anything else I need to know about a thyroid antibodies test?

Thyroid disease can get worse during pregnancy. This can harm both the mother and her unborn baby. If you have ever had thyroid disease and are pregnant, you may be tested for thyroid antibodies along with tests that measure thyroid hormones. Medicines to treat thyroid disease are safe to take during pregnancy.

References

  1. American Thyroid Association [Internet]. Falls Church (VA): American Thyroid Association; c2019. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease [cited 2019 Jan 2]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.thyroid.org/thyroid-disease-pregnancy
  2. American Thyroid Association [Internet]. Falls Church (VA): American Thyroid Association; c2019. Thyroid Function Tests [cited 2019 Jan 2]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.thyroid.org/thyroid-function-tests
  3. Lab Tests Online [Internet]. Washington D.C.: American Association for Clinical Chemistry; c2001–2019. Hashimoto Thyroiditis [updated 2017 Nov 27; cited 2019 Jan 2]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://labtestsonline.org/conditions/hashimoto-thyroiditis
  4. Lab Tests Online [Internet]. Washington D.C.: American Association for Clinical Chemistry; c2001–2019. Thyroid Antibodies [updated 2018 Dec 19; cited 2019 Jan 2]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://labtestsonline.org/tests/thyroid-antibodies
  5. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998–2019. Thyroid peroxidase antibody test: What is it?; 2018 May 8 [cited 2019 Jan 2]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/thyroid-disease/expert-answers/faq-20058114
  6. Mayo Clinic: Mayo Medical Laboratories [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1995–2019. Test ID: TPO: Thyroperoxidase (TPO) Antibodies, Serum: Clinical and Interpretative [cited 2019 Jan 2]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: https://www.mayocliniclabs.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/81765
  7. Mayo Clinic: Mayo Medical Laboratories [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1995–2019. Test ID: TPO: Thyroperoxidase (TPO) Antibodies, Serum: Overview [cited 2019 Jan 2]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.mayocliniclabs.com/test-catalog/Overview/81765
  8. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Blood Tests [cited 2019 Jan 2]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/blood-tests
  9. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Hashimoto's Disease; 2017 Sep [cited 2019 Jan 2]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/hashimotos-disease
  10. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Hyperthyroidism (Overactive Thyroid); 2016 Aug [cited 2019 Jan 2]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/hyperthyroidism
  11. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Hypothyroidism (Underactive Thyroid); 2016 Aug [cited 2019 Jan 2]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/hypothyroidism
  12. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Thyroid Tests; 2017 May [cited 2019 Jan 2]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diagnostic-tests/thyroid
  13. Physician's Weekly [Internet]. Physician's Weekly; c2018. Managing Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy; 2012 Jan 24 [cited 2019 Jan 2]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.physiciansweekly.com/thyroid-disease-during-pregnancy
  14. University of Rochester Medical Center [Internet]. Rochester (NY): University of Rochester Medical Center; c2019. Health Encyclopedia: Thyroid Antibody [cited 2019 Jan 2]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=167&contentid=thyroid_antibody
  15. UW Health [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics Authority; c2019. Antithyroid Antibody Tests: Results [updated 2018 Mar 15; cited 2019 Jan 2]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: https://www.uwhealth.org/health/topic/medicaltest/antithyroid-antibody-tests/abq5900.html#abq5907
  16. UW Health [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics Authority; c2019. Antithyroid Antibody Tests: Test Overview [updated 2018 Mar 15; cited 2019 Jan 2]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.uwhealth.org/health/topic/medicaltest/antithyroid-antibody-tests/abq5900.html
  17. UW Health [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics Authority; c2019. Antithyroid Antibody Tests: Why It is Done [updated 2018 Mar 15; cited 2019 Jan 2]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.uwhealth.org/health/topic/medicaltest/antithyroid-antibody-tests/abq5900.html#abq5902

Hemoglobin A1C Tests hbA1C

is a lab test that shows the average level of blood sugar (glucose) over the previous 3 months. It shows how well you are
controlling your diabetes.

Why the Test is Performed

Your provider may order this test if you have diabetes. It shows how well you are controlling your diabetes. The test may also be used to screen for diabetes. Ask your provider how often you should have your A1C level tested.
Usually, testing every 3 or 6 months is recommended.

Normal Results
The following are the results when A1C is being used to diagnose diabetes:

  • Normal (no diabetes): Less than 5.7%
  • Pre-diabetes: 5.7% to 6.4%
  • Diabetes: 6.5% or higher

If you have diabetes, you and your provider will discuss the correct range for you. For many people, the goal is to keep the level below 7%. The test result may be incorrect in people with anemia, kidney disease, or certain blood disorders (thalassemia). Talk to your provider if you have any of these conditions. Certain medicines can also result in a false A1C level. The examples above are common measurements for results of these tests. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results Mean An abnormal result means that you have had a high blood sugar level over a period of weeks to months. If your A1C is above 6.5% and you do not already have diabetes, you may be diagnosed with diabetes. If your level is above 7% and you have diabetes, it often means that your blood sugar is not well controlled. You and your provider should determine your target A1C. The higher your A1C, the higher the risk that you will develop problems such as:

  • Eye disease
  • Heart disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Nerve damage
  • Stroke

If your A1C stays high, talk to your provider about how to best manage your blood sugar.

References

American Diabetes Association. 6. Glycemic targets: standards of medical care in diabetes – 2018. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(Suppl 1):S55-S64. PMID: 29222377 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29222377. Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb, glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, HbA1a, HbA1b, HbA1c) - blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2013:596-597. Review Date 5/17/2018 Updated by: Brent Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.